What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a condition which affects the nervous system (nerves, brain and spinal cord) and progresses gradually resulting in nerve damage.

It disrupts communication between the brain and the body causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance.

In multiple sclerosis, the body’s immune system T cells attack the myelin sheath that protects the nerve fibers. The T cells either partially or completely strip the myelin off the fibers, leaving the nerves unprotected and uninsulated.

The name refers to the multiple scars (or scleroses) on the myelin sheaths.

Early signs of multiple sclerosis

It causes many different symptoms. The symptoms, severity and duration can vary from person to person.

Some people may be symptom free for most of their lives, while others can have severe, chronic symptoms that never go away.

Some of this symptoms include;

  • Vision problems
  • Tingling and numbness
  • Pains and spasms
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Balance problems or dizziness.
  • Bladder issues
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Cognitive problems


The causes are unknown.

It is considered an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues.

In the case of multiple sclerosis, this immune system malfunction destroys myelin (the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.


There is no cure for Multiple Sclerosis.

Treatment typically focuses on speeding recovery from attacks, slowing the progression of the disease and managing its symptoms.

Some people have such mild symptoms that no treatment is necessary.


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