Blindness is the inability to see anything, even light. It can not be corrected by standard glasses, contact lenses, medicine, or even surgery.
Common causes of blindness
1. Congenital eye defects
Various conditions present at birth can affect the eyes or vision. Some congenital eye conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are passed on through genes. Others, such as vision loss due to German measles, result from a disease or deficiency during pregnancy. Anophthalmia is a rare condition in which one or both eyes do not form during pregnancy.
Eye trauma refers to damage caused by a direct blow to the eye. The trauma may affect not only the eye, but the surrounding area, including adjacent tissue and bone structure. When the eye is hit with blunt force, it suddenly compresses and retracts. This can cause blood to collect underneath the hit area.
Injuries can be caused by sharp objects, accidents at home, work or during sporting activities, chemical burns etc.
Chemical exposures and burns are usually caused by a splash of liquid getting in your eye. But they can be caused in other ways as well, such as by rubbing your eyes and transferring a chemical from your hands to your eyes or by getting sprayed directly in the eye with a chemical substance.
3. Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes. It is characterized by progressive damage to the blood vessels of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that is necessary for good vision. Patients with diabetes can experience decreased eyesight or complete loss of vision from swelling or bleeding in the retina, or from retinal detachment.
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the back of your eye. This is a medical emergency that causes total or partial loss of vision.
Macular degeneration, often called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is an eye disorder associated with aging and results in damaging sharp and central vision.
When the cells of the macula deteriorate, images are not received correctly. In early stages, macular degeneration does not affect vision. Later, if the disease progresses, people experience wavy or blurred vision, and, if the condition continues to worsen, central vision may be completely lost. Cataract
This is a condition in which the lens of the eye, which is normally clear, becomes cloudy or opaque. Cataracts generally form slowly and without pain and can affect one or both eyes which eventually interferes with your vision.
A corneal infection, or keratitis, occurs when the cornea is damaged by a foreign object, or from bacteria or fungi (often from a contaminated contact lens). This can cause painful inflammation and can lead to corneal scarring. In the most serious cases, keratitis can cause blindness.
This is a disease in which the retinal neurons that send the signal from the eye to the brain die. Glaucoma occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises. This disease most often progresses slowly over time. Glaucoma can be treated with medication and alleviated by a small operation, but is not curable.
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